Which came first… sandwiches, Guinness or Cox & Kings?
21st July 2018 marks the 260th anniversary of the founding of Cox & Co., which went on to become Cox & Kings, the world’s longest established travel company.
To put this extraordinary milestone into historical perspective, we have collected some of the remarkable people and events from the period immediately following the establishment of our company. There was a lot going on in the second half of the 18th century, from the founding of Lloyds Bank, Captain Cook’s discovery of Australia and, not least, the invention of the sandwich….
Companies & Landmarks
1759: The world-leading dry Irish stout beer, Guinness, was created by Arthur Guinness at St James’s Gate brewery in Dublin.
1765: Lloyds Bank was set up in Dale End, Birmingham, by John Taylor and Sampson Lloyd.
1766: Christie’s, the British auction house, was founded by James Christie.
1792: The New York Stock & Exchange Board was founded after the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by 24 New York stockbrokers and merchants.
1799: The pink and red sandstone Hawa Mahal in Jaipur – also known as Palace of Winds – was built.
Hawa Mahal (Palace of the Winds)
1758: Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, was born on 29th September. He was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy, known for his inspiring leadership, innovative strategy and unconventional tactics.
1759: Josiah Wedgwood founded the Wedgwood Pottery Company in England.
1760: George III becomes King of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
1769: On 15th August, military leader Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio, Corsica.
1775: Famous British author Jane Austen is born, writer of Emma and Pride and Prejudice.
Art & Culture
1759: The British Museum in London was first opened to the public in Montagu House.
1768: The Royal Academy of Arts was founded by King George III to promote education and exhibitions.
1775: JMW Turner, arguably England’s most celebrated water-colourist painter, is born.
1776: John Constable, one of the great English landscape painters, is born.
1792: The Louvre in Paris is built – it is currently the world’s largest art museum.
Musee du Louvre, Paris
Historic events post-1758
1762: The first sandwich is made for John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, to keep him sustained during a 24-hour gambling binge, without interrupting his game.
1762: Tsar Peter III of Russia was overthrown by the Imperial Guard on the orders of his wife Catherine II, The Great, who replaced him.
1763: The Treaty of Paris brought an end to the Seven Years’ War between Great Britain and France, including the ceding of Canada to Great Britain.
1764: James Hargreaves invented the ‘Spinning Jenny’ that sped up the production of yarn and revolutionised the weaving industry.
1765: James Watt invents the first steam engine with a condenser, to make steam engines more efficient.
Discoveries & Exploration
1779: Explorer and navigator Captain James Cook reaches the coast of Australia, consequently becoming the first European to write about his experience meeting the indigenous Aboriginals.
1781: During a routine survey, William Herschel locates Uranus, the first planet discovered since ancient history.
1795: Scottish adventurer Mungo Park explores the River Niger. He’s believed to be the first person to reach legendary city of Timbuktu, but he died in Nigeria before he could make his claim.
1796: French naturalist and zoologist Georges Cuvier confirms extinction to be a fact, as opposed to mere speculation.
1796: Henaoka Seishu develops general anaesthesia, prior to which all surgery – minor and major – was performed, whilst patients were wide awake (and frequently held down on the table).
Captain Cook monument
To find out more about Cox & Kings’ history, please see here.